Trends in Polish agriculture in the 30-year period of 1990–2019

Trends in Polish agriculture in the 30-year period of 1990–2019Adam Harasim, Mariusz Matyka

Abstract: Presented paper analyzed changes in Polish agriculture assessed on the basis of 22 indicators characterizing agricultural resources, consumption of production goods and the result of agricultural production in the years 1990–2019. The aim of the research was to find the trends that have emerged in Polish agriculture in the last 30 years. The data published by the Central Statistical Office was used as source data. The results showed a significant dynamics of changes in both level and structure of agricultural production. Since 1990s, the specialization of farms has deepened, which was a result of the systemic transformation and Poland’s accession to the structures of the European Union. The specialization was deepened mostly through the changes in use of production factors to promote the leading agricultural activity of farm in terms of increasing the scale and marketability of production. The study showed some positive changes of Polish agriculture, i.e.: the development of large farms, an increase in the average area of farms and in land concentration, increased yields of plants, slaughter efficiency of livestock and milk efficiency of cows, reduction of employment in agriculture as a factor of increasing labor productivity. On the other hand, the unfavorable phenomena were found, such as: decreasing acreage of agricultural land in Poland, reduction of outlays on certain production goods (including low use of certified seeds and fertilizing lime), a downward trend in the number of livestock (but with a noticeable improvement in their productivity). The main determinants of changes in the level and structure of agricultural production included a reduction in the area of agricultural land and the number of commercial farms, as well as an increase in their average area, but also an increase in plant and livestock production efficiency.

Keywords: agricultural resources, consumption of productiongoods, agricultural production, change tendencies