Reaction of facultative cultivars of spring wheat to autumn and spring sowing dates

Reaction of facultative cultivars of spring wheat to autumn and spring sowing dates– Wacław Jarecki, Dorota Bobrecka-Jamro

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the reaction of facultative cultivars of spring wheat to autumn and spring sowing dates. Sowing of facultative cultivars in autumn is justified especially after late forecrop (sugar beet, maize for grain), when the optimal date of sowing of winter wheat has passed. A replicated field experiment was carried out in the seasons 2013/2014–2015/2016. Three cultivars of spring wheat: Bombona, Ostka Smolicka and Struna were selected for testing. The autumn vs. spring sowing date of spring wheat was shown to result in a significant increase in rain yield (by 0.7 t ha-1, i.e. 10.8%). The yield increase was the result of an increased number of ears per m2 and 1000 grain weight in cultivars from autumn sowing. Grain from spring sowing was characterized by a higher content of total protein, phosphorus, calcium, iron, copper and zinc. The autumn sowing date resulted in an increase in the content of potassium in the grain. Struna was marked by a significantly larger number of ears per m2 compared to that in Ostka Smolicka. Bombona formed a greater number of grains in the ear than Struna, but it developed smaller grains compared to those in Ostka Smolicka. Bombona had the highest total protein and ash content. The grain of Struna contained significantly more starch than Bombona and less crude fibre than Ostka Smolicka. Bombona had a higher content of phosphorus compared to that in Struna, and a higher calcium content than Struna and Ostka Smolicka. High contents of iron, copper and manganese was determined in the grain of Bombona , whereas the grain of Ostka Smolicka was high in zinc.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., facultative cultivars, sowing date, yield components, yield, chemical composition