15. Plonowanie i zdrowotność dwóch podgatunków pszenicy w zależności od udziału zbóż w strukturze zasiewów w warunkach integrowanej produkcji – Alicja Sułek, Grażyna Podolska, Bogusława Jaśkiewicz
Słowa kluczowe: pszenica ozima zwyczajna, pszenica orkiszowa, płodozmian, plon ziarna, choroby grzybowe, integrowana produkcja
THE YIELD AND HEALTHINESS OF WINTER WHEAT DEPENDING ON THE SHARE OF CEREALS IN CROP STRUCTURE UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF INTEGRATED PRODUCTION
The field experiment was carried out in the growing period of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 at Agricultural Experimental Stadion of IUNG-PIB in Osiny. Winter wheat was grown on the soils of quality class IIIa and IIIb in a long-term experiment with 50, 75 and 100% share of cereals in crop rotation under integrated production. The tests included Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare wheat of cv. Bamberka and Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta wheat cv. Rokosz. The aim of the research was to assess the health and yields of winter wheat subspecies depending on the percentage of cereals in the sowing structure, grown under the conditions of integrated production. Weather conditions during the years of the research diversified yields of wheat cultivars and affected the severity of fungal diseases. Cultivation of wheat in monoculture, compared with its cultivation in crop rotation, led to a clear reduction in the number of ears and in 1000 grain weight and, consequently, to a significant decrease in grain yields. The increase in the percentage of cereals in crop structure contributed to higher occurrence of leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) and brown leaf spot (Drechslera tritici-repentis) among wheat plants. There was no effect of crop rotation on the incidence of stripe rust of leaves (Septoria tritici). There were species differences in their susceptibility to fungal diseases. Rokosz cultivar (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) showed a significantly higher resistance to a complex of stem base diseases as well as diseases affecting assimilatory apparatus compared to cv. Bamberka (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare).
key words: winter wheat, cultivars, grain yield, crop rotation, fungal diseases, integrated production